So the Altera Max 10 FPGA we’re using has 256kbits of User Flash Memory. This is non-volatile memory that is built into the actual FPGA itself. This means you don’t need any external memory to get the FPGA to boot itself.
You can use the memory in several different combinations, depending on what you want to do. For instance, you can store a couple FPGA configurations (bitstreams that contain data to program the LUTs internally to “make” the hardware). I believe there’s a jumper on the eval board to allow you to select which one it should boot from. Pretty neat — like dual booting. (which is what they actually call it) In this case, using the flash that way is called CFM — configuration flash memory.
You can also use it as UFM, or User Flash Memory, where you store data for your particular application.
Right now, we are booting this badge computer with the J68 softcore with vubug.txt. (see main project page for the link, or google). This ROM Monitor, made in 1988(!!), is currently stored in the m9k’s (RAM blocks of the FPGA) but is taking up a precious 16K bytes of them. We really need these m9k’s for other things, like high-speed storage for other hardware peripherals, like the GPU.
One minor problem that I’ve discovered: the flash memory has pretty high latency. The m9k’s have none — the clock cycle after a read request, the right data is on the line. While never stated directly in any datasheet/manual that I could find, I saw some reference to a 5-cycle latency. I set off to measure this directly to make sure.
The top yellow line, CH1 on my Rigol 1102E, shows the READ request going out to the Avalon-MM (memory mapped) IP Core generated by Quartus II. Using the core is the only way to access the Flash memory.
The bottom line blue line, CH2, shows the Read Data Valid pin coming back from the memory.
As you can see with the measurement cursors, there’s 100ns delay between the request, and the data being on the line. At the current test speed of 50mhz(1/50mhz = 20ns), that’s five clock cycles. Exactly what I thought.
I am pre-initializing the UFM with a MIF file during programming. For this purpose, you need to make sure to program using the .POF file, and NOT the .SOF file, because the SOF doesn’t contain the data required for the programming of the flash. Programming flash takes longer than just writing the FPGA configuration, so that’s how you know it’s “working.”
I wrote a small state machine, along with my UART from a few projects back, that simply copies the contents of FLASH memory out of the serial port at 115.2K.
Here’s a screenshot
The key thing to note here is that only the high-order/MSB byte is being copied out of the port.
The next step for this effort is to attach the J68’s 16-bit wide bus, that is currently attached to the ROM via an m9k, and attach it to the UFM, which is 32-bits wide. There’s a super lossy way to do this, by simply ignoring the other 16-bits, but I hope I have time to do better than that!
This is the first post of many in this category.
We have a project page giving the general goals of the project, but most of the hands-on action will happen here in the blog posts. For the latest status, reading these real-time blog posts will give you the best understanding.
We welcome feedback and commentary on the project.
I recently discovered a problem where email directed to techtravels.org accounts was bouncing.
It’s been fixed. If you’ve emailed something over the last couple months and didn’t get a reply, please try again.
So after looking at the high priced real HP logic analyzer cart that didn’t look that great to me, I decided to build my own incorporating a ton of features that just really makes my life easier. This is optimized for use over cost.
The physical make up
- It uses solid 2×2 poplar posts as the overall frame. Easily available from Home Depot.
- The surface is 3/4″ birch veneered plywood. I use this plywood for a bunch of projects. It’s pretty solid stuff, and the birch really looks nice on top.
- The surface is treated with Polycrylic. Polycrylic resists damage from abrasion, scuffing, chipping, water, alcohol and other common household chemicals. This is nice stuff, but expensive. Nice topcoat.
- The visible layered plywood sides were wrapped with birch veneer that I ironed on with a clothes iron.
- The overall dimensions are 24″ Wide, 27″ Deep, 35″ High including the 4″ high Casters.
- This thing is built like a brick shithouse. Even with the Heavy LA on it, it’s really sturdy.
- The monitor is a 20″ 4:3 Samsung. It was an older one, but that’s exactly what I wanted. I don’t think it will do the 1600×1200 max resolution, but the next one down (1280 x 1024?) It’s connected to an Ergotron(love this company’s stuff) monitor arm so that I can push/pull/adjust/spin/raise the monitor over top of DUT’s.
- This is a 115 watts of light DIY flexible task lamp that I built myself out of spare strip LEDs. It uses less than 20 watts of power. Look here if you’d like to see the full design for it. It works very nicely.
- The static dissipative naprene rubber mat from 3M 8831 is beautiful. It’s a great tough surface that really works. I have a wrist-strap (w/ 1M resistor) attached to the corner. The mat is fully grounded through the power strip on the rear.
- This custom sliding keyboard shelf is almost 20″ wide and includes a Cherry ML4100 keyboard that is compatible with the LA. I also added a Kensington trackball M01082 which is much more practical given the space limitations. I like this solution better than trying to jam a full-sized keyboard in there. The shelf was put at an ergonomic height.
- This is the HP LA itself. Right now, it’s outfitted with a 16752A, (2) 16715A’s, (2) 16717A’s.
- I found a generic storage bin that really fit the space underneath the cart. Perfect dimensions. I use it for storing cables, CDs, manuals, and everything related. Nice to have it all in one place.
- These are 4″ Black 4″ Black locking Polyolefin Wheels, model L3PB4X. Support up to 250 pounds. I originally used 2″ casters, these are so much better.
Other things that are nice to have
- A 12-outlet Belkin Surge Suppressor with a 10-foot cord. This is nice because everything attaches to the strip which is zip-tied to the frame, and then just one cord leaves the cart to the outlet. This means I can wheel this thing around my make-shift lab and have it exactly where I want with minimal mess.
- A wireless bridge that connects the wired RJ45 network port to 802.11 wifi. The brand is IOGEAR, and it simply does the job beautifully. This prevents me from running an ethernet cable over to the LA.
I needed some more horsepower for my FPGA compiles, and because it’s been so long since my last PC build, I decided to take advantage of some free time I had, and build a new machine.
This machine is a quad-core i7 build with 32GB of DDR3 and (2) 240GB SSDs.
PCPartPicker part list: http://pcpartpicker.com/p/b9p7bv
Price breakdown by merchant: http://pcpartpicker.com/p/b9p7bv/by_merchant/
CPU: Intel Core i7-4790K 4.0GHz Quad-Core Processor ($279.99 @ Micro Center)
CPU Cooler: Noctua NH-C12P SE14 65.0 CFM CPU Cooler ($63.97 @ OutletPC)
Motherboard: Gigabyte GA-Z97X-Gaming 5 ATX LGA1150 Motherboard ($129.99 @ B&H)
Memory: (2) G.Skill Sniper Series 16GB (2 x 8GB) DDR3-1866 Memory ($104.78 @ OutletPC)
Storage: (2) Sandisk Extreme Pro 240GB 2.5″ Solid State Drive ($129.88 @ OutletPC)
Video Card: Gigabyte GeForce GTX 750 Ti 2GB WINDFORCE Video Card ($109.99 @ Newegg)
Case: Corsair SPEC-03 Red ATX Mid Tower Case ($69.99 @ Newegg)
Power Supply: Rosewill 500W 80+ Gold Certified Semi-Modular ATX Power Supply ($69.99 @ Amazon)
Optical Drive: Asus DRW-24B1ST/BLK/B/AS DVD/CD Writer ($18.75 @ OutletPC)
Here are some photos from the build, enjoy!
I want to put together a softcore 68K computer system, just something simple.
I’ve purchased, but not yet received, the Terasic Cyclone V GX Starter Kit, an Altera FPGA eval board.
It looks pretty sweet and includes some fun stuff I’ve never done like HDMI connectors, has some easy to access onboard SRAM, has built in FTDI USB support, built in programmer, built-in flash for non-volatile storage, 77K logic elements, and the list goes on. Looks like a really sweet board EXCEPT for one line on the datasheet:
4Gb LPDDR2 x32 bits data bus
“Oh no! Not yet a different memory chip or interface”
What’s nice is that there are (2) HARD memory controllers built-in to the FPGA, and so you don’t have to waste logic elements for defining your own. While I’m not sure what I was thinking, I really expected the interface to the memory to be very simple…. You know something like a FIFO-front end where you’d specific address, read/write, data, and then throw some read_data_valid switch and voila. Well, of course, I’m wrong.
Again, I’m in the middle of a memory controller nightmare.
For my Altera DE0, I modified the memory controller found here. It works like a champ, and the interface is pretty darn simple.
I could really use some help putting together a simple to use DDR2 controller to access this chip:
It’s configured like this: 16 Meg x 32 x 8 banks x 1 die. Rows are addressed like this “16K (A[13:0])” and columns “1K (A[9:0])” using Single Channel Addressing. Cycle Time is “-25 = 2.5ns, tCK RL = 6”
What I don’t know is whether I can even start with a SDRAM controller and then expand on that, or if a completely different approach is warranted. I know that DDR2 is still SDRAM, and the interface to the new memory chip is very similar. I don’t really need the double-pumping or the increased data rate — I’d take anything to get off the ground.
Ideally, I’d find a verilog module for a controller with an example module that instantiates it, writes to some addresses, and then reads them back and verifies them.
A google search, as well as investigation on OpenCores hasn’t yielded much. This Altera youtube video is promising, but it stopped short on showing the HDL-specific details on how to instantiate it, and how to actually USE the module that gets created. This is assuming that everything goes swimmingly during the fairly complicated MegaWizard process.
If you’ve got any experience or helpful tips, I’d appreciate it.
While I probably would have preferred to order an Indivision ECS scan doubler, a really nice alternative is a Gonbes GBS8200 video converter off of ebay. I had bought version 2.0 sometime in 2010 or 2011, and could not make it work in any fashion. I think, at the time, the limitation was the ability to handle a combined horizontal and vertical (composite) sync signal at a low refresh rate ~15khz, like the Amiga puts out.
I decided to try a new version, version 4.0, from the first quarter of 2014. I bought this on ebay for $28.00 shipped which is an awesome deal. I received the board three days later in the mail, which is impressive for free shipping!
Here’s the ebay item number and description in the case where the number will change:
Luckily, I already had “stock” at my house of DB23F connectors, and I’m glad I bought some extra when I did. It seems there are still some sources around (in mid-2015) for some connectors, although prices seem to be going up. Worst case, you could hack an existing cable, or buy a replacement video cable off ebay, and use that.
For pinouts, you only have to connect (5) wires to get this working:
DB23 pin to VGA converter wire color
3 to RED
4 to GREEN
5 to BLUE
10 to GRAY (Composite Sync signal)
16 to BLACK (GND)
When the video converter powers up, press DOWN/AUTO button to get the unit to sync up. You may need to modify the horizontal position(I needed X position: 57) or adjust the zoom.
My unit powered up in Chinese. You need to select option 4 (bottom option) for language, and then choose English on the next menu.
I powered this with my Rigol DP832 power supply and measured the current draw at various voltages. Note that you should NOT power this thing off of the Amiga’s DB23 video port. It simply can’t support the current draw.
Current draw in idle mode(no video): uses about 1.6 watts or +12v 133ma, +8.5v 180ma, +5v 300ma
Current Draw in active mode: uses about 2.4 watts or +12v 200ma, +8.5v 276ma, +5v 468ma.
So if you use a +5v regulated power supply, you need to be at least 625ma if you wanted a 25% safety margin. A 1 amp supply would probably be better. Note that the official specs call for 2 amps of current at +5v. My field testing doesn’t really prove that number out. I’ll keep it running for awhile, maybe something goofy happens like as it heats up, it draws more current, or something.
Update: I’ve tested this on two different models, a Widescreen Samsung S22C300 monitor, and an older square Samsung SyncMaster 204B.
I just wanted to mention that I’m a backer on this kickstarter, and I just wanted to get the word out.
I’ve read On the Edge: the Spectacular Rise and Fall of Commodore and I’d love to read this followup that contains the Amiga details of Commodore.
So I wanted a very bright flexible LED task Lamp that didn’t break the budget. I had a few feet of 7020 LED strip lighting left over from my undershelf LED lights, so I decided to put those to the task. These LEDs give off about 33-35 lumen per LED, and I’m using 54 LEDs for the task. That’s about 1836 lumen which translates to roughly 115 watts of light. The best part is that it’s very efficient, only using under 20 watts of power, including power supply losses, measured by kill-a-watt.
- 120mm x 100mm x 18mm Heat Sink: The mounting base for the LEDs is an aluminum heat sink. All these LEDs give off a bunch of heat in a small space, so a heat sink is crucial. While I could have done the thermal calculations to determine exactly which heat sink to buy, I had a hard time even finding a suitable size and shape of heat sink I wanted, that could be delivered in a reasonable time frame. $12 prime-shipped.
- The 7020 LED strip lights from ebay and China: These things are freakin’ awesome. Really bright, really easy to use. You power them with +12v using a regular off the shelf adapter. The LEDs feature a positive and negative rail that runs down the length of the super flexible PCB. They include adhesive on the back. $23 for (16) feet of the stuff shipped from China, via the slow boat, seriously.
- 18″ flexible gooseneck and desk clamp: I could have ordered a 24″ for just about the same price, and I think that would have been the better choice. This gooseneck is really high quality and the stiffness makes me think it will last a long time before I need to replace it. This is NOT the cheap quality stuff you get on IKEA/Walmart/Target lamps. This company’s website is a little hokey and my order errored out the first time I placed it. About $32 plus shipping is fixed around $13 for the two items, which is sort of ridic, but whatever. The most expensive part of the lamp.
- A cheap 12v power supply: Provides +12v at 5 amp which is more than enough. This lamp only draws about 1.3 amps, so you could get something smaller. $8 prime-shipped.
- Notice that there is a positive and negative rail that runs lengthwise down the strip. On one side, notice that I cut the negative rail short, and on the other side, I cut the positive rail short. This is so I could run my own power bus straight down and connect all the strips together. +12v rail on one side, GND on the other.
- Both the center of the strips and the edges are insulated off of the aluminum heat sink. While there is some separation with the adhesive, I wanted to make sure this stuff didn’t short!
- I used a smaller stranded wire (24 gauge) to connect the strips but only for 6 or 7 inches. I convert quickly to 18 gauge which should be much more sufficient.
- I used heat shrink tubing extensively to add better protection for the wires.
- I drilled a 3/8″ hole in the bottom of the heatsink to mount the gooseneck. The gooseneck didn’t have much metal to “grab” so I used two different JBWELD products. Their stuff is awesome. I used SteelStik (soft, flexible, steel-fiber, epoxy putty) to form a top cap. I also used their ClearWeld at the base of heatsink which rests on the top lip of the gooseneck. Is this overkill? Probably. Will this connection break in my lifetime, almost certainly not! See pictures below.
- I added an inline switch to the AC side of the power supply figure-8 cable.
- These LEDs are on the blue end of the spectrum and produce a very very white light. This is completely different from Incandescent light, and you if you photograph under it, make sure to adjust your white balance accordingly.
- I’ve made a huge leap of faith with this heat sink. I could be entirely underestimating the amount of heat dissipation required. I can tell you that after an hour of running, some parts of the LEDs are close to their maximum operating temperature(170F), while the rear of the heatsink (average temperature) is around 85F. The fins are much hotter.